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EXTERNAL LINKS POLICY

PLEASE REVIEW THE USFRA EXTERNAL LINKS POLICY BEFORE SUBMITTING YOUR LINKS.

We only provide FREE one way links to IRS confirmed not for profit/charitable and government entities.

Advertising, Sponsor and Affiliate Link Disclosure Policy

Our National Partners

FSC and USFRA custom book projects

Please join FSC, USFRA and our partners in a lifesaving project that benefits first responders and veterans. FSC is printing 20,000+ custom USFRA disaster preparedness and first aid books for the Dallas-Fort Worth area -- Learn more

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Jägermeister and USFRA thank Florida First Responders after Hurricane Michael

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StarCom Racing, Landon Cassill and USFRA Car #00 honor NASCAR Hometown Heroes

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Donate & get Decal / Patch/T-Shirt

By supporting the United States First Responders Association, Inc. with your tax deductible donation, you provide the necessary resources to enhance the capabilities of  Police &  Fire Department with access to world-class processes and operational tools as well as help military Veterans and give currently serving heroes the information and tools needed to re-assimilate into civilian life.

The United States First Responders Association, Inc. is an established Florida Non-profit Corporation with a tax exempt status under Section 501 (c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code.  Federal ID # 47-3707493

We rely on the financial support of visitors.

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USFRA CAR DECALS

Show your support for Fire-Rescue, EMS, Law Enforcement and the U.S Armed Forces!! Donate and receive one decal for your vehicle or place of business!

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PROUDLY SHOW YOUR SUPPORT FOR PUBLIC SAFETY AND THE U.S. ARMED FORCES WITH THE USFRA PATCH!!

---------------------------------USFRA Member T-Shirt Customized w/Your Name

Sport your very own USFRA Member T-Shirt! Show your support for First Responders with your name and station number imprinted on the front and the back! 

Custom Imprinted Fire Dept. Maltese Cross T-Shirt

6.1 oz. pre-shrunk heavyweight cotton. (Light Steel and Charcoal Heather are 90%/10%). Shoulder-to-shoulder tape. Double-needle sleeves and bottom hem. "C" logo on left sleeve. Our new Maltese design is now customizable with your name. You can order this custom tee just the way you want it. Available with small or large front imprint and/or large back imprint. Easy to order, simply choose your Shirt Size  and tell us the text you want imprinted around the Maltese Cross as well as the number or word to be imprinted in the center of the Maltese Cross. (The inside imprint text or number is limited to 7 characters only). Available in Adult sizes Small thru 3X.

Funds raised from the sale of the USFRA Member shirts will go towards the USFRA Pet Oxygen Mask Program!

Sizes: Small Medium Large 

XL 2XL (add 2.00) 

3XL (add 3.00)

Color Navy Blue with White Lettering

***Please allow 10 - 21 business days for delivery. Remember, these shirts are personalized.

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USFRA Member Shirt

USFRA Resources

About Us

Created by Fyre Walker Apr 11, 2008 at 6:20am. Last updated by Fyre Walker Aug 30, 2019.

Civilian Fire Safety Links

Created by Fyre Walker Aug 6, 2009 at 4:29pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

Civilian Health and Wellness

Created by Fyre Walker Mar 10, 2010 at 6:48pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Oct 24, 2013.

Civilian Kid Fire and Life Safety Links

Created by Fyre Walker Feb 8, 2011 at 12:19pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

Civilian Life Safety Links

Created by Fyre Walker Jul 19, 2011 at 12:50am. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

EMS Links

Created by Fyre Walker Jul 26, 2009 at 3:07pm. Last updated by Janet Liebsch Jan 29.

EVO - Emergency Vehicle Operations

Created by Cam Mitchell Jan 24, 2013 at 10:38am. Last updated by Cam Mitchell Jan 24, 2013.

FIRE EDUCATION AND TRAINING

Created by Fyre Walker Mar 18, 2009 at 2:32pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

Fire Grants

Created by Fyre Walker Mar 21, 2012 at 11:00am. Last updated by Tony Thomas Apr 12, 2017.

Fire Links

Created by Fyre Walker Aug 6, 2009 at 9:22pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

LEO Links

Created by Fyre Walker Aug 31, 2009 at 6:34pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jul 25, 2019.

Military Links

Created by Fyre Walker Jun 24, 2009 at 9:49am. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury

Created by Tony Thomas Jun 13, 2010 at 11:16am. Last updated by Fyre Walker Jun 9, 2019.

Preparedness and Training

Created by Fyre Walker Mar 21, 2012 at 11:44am. Last updated by Fyre Walker Mar 21, 2012.

The USFRA Staff

Created by Fyre Walker Mar 25, 2010 at 4:23pm. Last updated by Fyre Walker Dec 25, 2019.

We Proudly Support First Responders

Rucker Law Firm, PLLC is a personal injury firm located in Houston, Texas. Practice areas include car, truck, and other vehicle accidents, Jones Act injury cases, oil industry injuries, slip and fall, dog bites, and wrongful death.

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Michael P. Fleming & Associates, P. C.

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Karen Loveless is a retired Firefighter/EMT -- now a professional songwriter. She wrote this song for all public servants...Thank You For The Job You Do!" click below to listen and learn more

Support Those Who Support First Responders!

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The Law Offices
of SRIS P.C. 
Phone: 888-437-7747. Atchuthan Sriskandarajah. 
We handle all traffic related offenses in VA. HABLAMOS ESPAÑOL
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Law Offices of Jerry J. Trevino

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Baumgartner Law Firm
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Law Offices of Ronald A. Ramos, P.C.
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LAWSUIT LEGAL
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JOIN THE USFRA TEAM!

JOIN THE USFRA TEAM!!

Create A Brighter Future. Join In!

Get Involved In Volunteer Projects.

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"We Salute You" Merchant Application

USFRA Member Benefits offers a wide variety special discounts for USFRA.org members. The USFRA program offers businesses the opportunity to promote products and services, at no charge to you, by providing special discounts and savings to Public Safety Members. (Fire-Rescue, EMS, Law Enforcement and the U.S. Armed Forces)

Your company or organization can be on the ground floor of this exciting NEW program by completing and submitting this application.

*Incomplete applications will be rejected.

Contact us for more information.

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In keeping with the overall theme of sharing education and tactical training, here is a list of our networking partners.

Clinical Guidance for Carbon Monoxide (CO) Poisoning After a Disaster

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless, poisonous gas that can cause sudden illness and death if present in sufficient concentration in the ambient air.  When power outages occur during emergencies such as hurricanes or winter storms, the use of alternative sources of fuel or electricity for heating, cooling, or cooking can cause CO to build up in a home, garage, or camper and poison the people and animals inside.  Generators, grills, camp stoves, or other gasoline, propane, natural gas, or charcoal-burning devices should never be used inside a home, basement, garage, or camper - or even outside near an open window or window air conditioner.

How to Recognize CO Poisoning: The symptoms and signs of carbon monoxide poisoning are variable and nonspecific. The most common symptoms of CO poisoning are headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, and altered mental status.

The clinical presentation of CO poisoning is the result of its underlying systemic toxicity.  Its effects are caused not only by impaired oxygen delivery but also by disrupting oxygen utilization and respiration at the cellular level, particularly in high-oxygen demand organs (i.e., heart and brain).

Symptoms of severe CO poisoning include malaise, shortness of breath, headache, nausea, chest pain, irritability, ataxia, altered mental status, other neurologic symptoms, loss of consciousness, coma, and death; signs include  tachycardia, tachypnea, hypotension, various neurologic findings including impaired memory, cognitive and sensory disturbances;  metabolic acidosis, arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia or infarction, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, although any organ system might be involved.

With a focused history, exposure to a CO source may become apparent. Appropriate and prompt diagnostic testing and treatment is very important.

Red Flags: No fever associated with symptoms, history of exposure, multiple patients with similar complaints.

Sources of CO Poisoning

  • Gas-powered generators
  • Charcoal grills, propane stoves, and charcoal briquettes for both cooking and heating indoors
  • Motor vehicles
  • Fire
  • Boats
  • Power washers and other gas powered tools.

At-risk Populations include:

  • Babies and infants
  • The elderly
  • People with chronic heart disease, anemia or respiratory illness.

Evaluation

  • Diagnosis is based on a suggestive history and physical findings coupled with confirmatory testing. Patients should be examined for other conditions, including smoke inhalation, trauma, medical illness, or intoxication. 
  • Neurological exam should include an assessment of cognitive function such as a Mini-Mental Status Exam
  • All women of childbearing age who are suspected of having CO poisoning should have a pregnancy test.

Confirmation of diagnosis

  • The key to confirming the diagnosis is measuring the patient’s carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level.
  • Carbon Monoxide levels can be tested either in whole blood or exhaled air.
  • It is important to know how much time has elapsed since the patient has left the toxic environment, because that will impact the COHb level. If the patient has been breathing normal room air for several hours, COHb testing may be less useful.
  • The most common technology available in hospital laboratories for analyzing the blood is the multiple wavelength spectrophotometer, also known as a CO-oximeter.  Venous or arterial blood may be used for testing.
  • A fingertip pulse CO-oximeter can be used to measure heart rate and oxygen saturation, and COHb levels. The conventional two-wavelength pulse oximeter is not accurate when COHb is present.

    An elevated COHb level of 2% for non-smokers and >9% COHb level for smokers strongly supports a diagnosis of CO poisoning.


  • COHb levels do not correlate well with severity of illness, outcomes or response to therapy so it is important to assess clinical symptoms and history of exposure when determining type and intensity of treatment.
  • Other testing, such as a fingerstick blood sugar, alcohol and toxicology screen, head CT scan or lumbar puncture may be needed to exclude other causes of altered mental status when the diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is inconclusive.
  • Note:  carbon monoxide can be produced endogenously as a byproduct of heme metabolism.  Patients with sickle cell disease can have an elevated COHb level as a result of hemolytic anemia or hemolysis.

Guidance for Management of Confirmed or Suspected CO Poisoning

  • Administer 100% oxygen until the patient is symptom-free, usually about 4-5 hours.  Serial neurologic exams should be performed to assess progress, and to detect the signs of developing cerebral edema.
  • Consider hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) therapy when the patient has a COHb level of more than 25- 30%, there is evidence of cardiac involvement, severe acidosis, transient or prolonged unconsciousness, neurological impairment, abnormal neuropsychiatric testing, or the patient is ≥36 years in age. HBO is also administered at lower COHb(<25%) levels if suggested by clinical condition and/history of exposure.
  • Hyperbaric oxygenis the treatment of choice for pregnant women, even if they are less severely poisoned. Hyperbaric oxygen is safe to administer and international consensus favors it as part of a more aggressive role in treating pregnant women.

Other Considerations

  • Cardiac injury during poisoning increases risk of mortality over 10 years following poisoning, so in patients with severe CO poisoning, it may be important to perform an EKG and measurement of troponin and cardiac enzymes.
  • Chest radiography is recommended for seriously poisoned patients, especially those with loss of consciousness or cardiopulmonary signs and symptoms.  Brain computed tomography or MRI is also recommended in these cases; these tests may show signs of cerebral infarction secondary to hypoxia or ischemia.
  • All discharged patients should be warned of possible delayed neurological complications and given instructions on what to do if these occur.  Follow-up should include a repeat medical and neurological exam in 2 weeks.
  • http://www.cdc.gov/co/

Last updated by Fyre Walker Sep 18, 2010.

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